Summary of current knowledge

As of July 2024 there are over 400,000 papers published relating to covid research. The links below are to either really clear and comprehensive explanations of what we know or address a particularly important area. This is clearly nothing remotely like a complete reference list, but if you are not familiar with the body of research on covid, this list will get you caught up to a good level.

June 2024 – Review of organ damage from COVID and Long COVID: a disease with a spectrum of pathology – incredibly clear and comprehensive review of the long term impacts of covid infection co-authored by some of the world’s pre-eminent covid scientists

Feb 2024 – Solving the puzzle of Long Covid – detailed explainer of what is happening in the bodies of people with Long Covid by two of the most respected scientists in the field

Nov 2023 – Clinical briefing podcast by Dr Hannah Preston and Dr Binita Kane. Dr Kane is one of the Uks leading experts on Long Covid and this podcast is aimed at getting doctors to have at least an accurate basic understanding of Long Covid

July 2023 – The immunology of long COVID – Comprehensive review of current knowledge published in Nature by Danny Altman and others. Very good detail on all the main theories about the underlying mechanisms.

Mar 2023 – Long COVID: Incidence, Impacts, And Implications, this is a summary article by David Putrino, who runs a lab and clinic at the absolute forefront of Long Covid research and treatment

Live resource – An incredibly comprehensive explanation of everything known about covid’s impact on the bodies various systems. The link takes you to the section on the immune system but note the menu on the left


June 2024 – New study links COVID-19 to lasting neuropsychiatric issues, showing COVID-19 survivors were at significantly heightened risk of developing cognitive deficits, insomnia, encephalitis, and at least four other neuropsychiatric sequelae

Feb 2024 – Cognition and Memory after Covid-19. Detailed study found reduction in memory and cognitive performace equivalent to about 3 IQ points in people recovered from Covid infection after short illness and 9 IQ points in those with persistent Long Covid symptoms

Feb 2024 – Temporal Association between COVID-19 Infection and Subsequent New-Onset Dementia in Older Adults. Study found significantly increased chance of New Onset Dementia post covid infection, this was not detectable 3 or 6 months post infection and only started to become significant at 12 months

Feb 2024 – Prospective Memory Assessment before and after Covid-19. Covid has a detrimental effect on memory, it is worse with women, higher BMI seems to make worse, suggests younger people relatively affected more than older people

Feb 2024 – Neuroimaging findings in children with COVID-19 infection. Study shows clearly that Covid infection is capable of leading to serious brain injury in children.

Feb 2024 – The long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of toddlers with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the neonatal period. Study only on hospitalised babies but clearly shows new borns and infants are at risk of neurological harm from a covid infection

Feb 2024 – Study published in Nature showing blood–brain barrier disruption and sustained systemic inflammation in individuals with long COVID-associated cognitive impairment

March 2022 – SARS-CoV-2 is associated with changes in brain structure in UK Biobank. Obviously now many more recent studies but this study, published in Nature, compared brain imaging taken before covid and then followed up those patients post covid infection, so very objective findings.


June 2024 – High prevalence of cardiac post-acute sequelae in patients recovered from Covid-19.

June 2024 – Autonomic cardiac function in children and adolescents with long COVID: a case-controlled study. Findings suggest that pediatric patients with long COVID have an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function toward a relative predominance of parasympathetic tone,

March 2023 – British Heart Foundation Publication – How does Covid-19 affect your heart?

March 2023 – Long-Term Adverse Effects of Mild COVID-19 Disease on Arterial Stiffness, and Systemic and Central Hemodynamics: A Pre-Post Study. A small group who had imaging pre covid were followed up and ALL found to have arterial stiffening post a mild covid infection.

Oct 2022 – Video from Indie Sage meeting of an exceptional presentation by Leading UK cardiologist Dr Rae Duncan on the cardiovascular impact of covid infection

Immune System

Note immune damage and disruption is at the heart of how covid causes long term harm and is therefore covered in detail in the overview links at the top of this page

June 2024 – A T-Cell-Derived 3-Gene Signature Distinguishes SARS-CoV-2 from Common Respiratory Viruses – study found the same odd immune response patterns found by other studies: The immune system is STRONGLY activated (especially the inflammatory response), but the pathway responsible for signaling targeted attacks on infected cells is suppressed (ie infection revs up the immune system but infected cells are hidden from it, so an engine not in gear with the accelerator pressed hard down – for a very long time)

June 2024 – SARS-CoV-2-associated lymphopenia. Paper explaining how the immune system is compromised and weakened post a SARS-COV-2 infection. Multiple other studies have shown T-cell depletion, this paper sets out the mechanisms that could be leading to this.

Dec 2023 – technical explanation of the similarities and differences in how SARS-COV-2 and HIV attack the immune system

Nov 2023 – T cell cross-reactivity in autoimmune-like hepatitis triggered by COVID-19

Aug 2023 – Long COVID manifests with T cell dysregulation, inflammation, and an uncoordinated adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2

Jly 2023 – Clearly identifed heightended T-Cell activation in post covid subjects and viral traces in gut and brain stem tissue

Sept 2023 – New Scientist article explaining the mechanism by which Covid can cause Type 1 diabetes in infants

Aug 2023 – Easy to read review of studies to date looking at increased risk of diabetes after SARS-COV-2 infection, incl links to previous research papers

Other useful resources

Immunology 101 for beginners – really great explainer that helps understand the often very technical research papers

July 2024 – Work ability and return-to-work of patients with post-COVID-19. Large scale meta analysis showing that for people experiencing any form of Long Covid / Post Covid illness, over 40% are unable to return to full time work as before their covid infection. Charts in all countries are showing numbers of workers on long term sick leave is sky-rocketing, politicians are trying to say this is people becoming lazy after lockdowns. This was always obviously ridiculous but this study demonstrates the reason people are off work is in fact because they are long term sick.